3. The 3D Profiler

one of the most interesting and useful feature of the metallurgical microscopes is having a 3D profiler which allows measurement of the height and/or thickness of a sample. This is a great tool for inspection of the materials or scaffold are made in three-dimensional, such as 3D tissue or dental cements. BIOIMAGER has recently added an output format of .stp to the constructed 3D microscopy images then you can easily print out what you observe under microscope.

3D Profile with automated Z focus at 10 nm resolution3D Profiler with tilting stand

4. Illumination Guide for Transmitted & Reflected Light

Transmitted Light

Specimen TypeImaging Technique
Transparent Specimens – Bacteria, spermatozoa, cells in glass containers, protozoa, mites, fibers, etc.Phase Contrast

Oblique Illumination

Light Scattering Objects – Diatoms, fibers, hair, fresh water microorganisms, radiolarians, etcDarkfield Illumination

Phase Contrast

Light Reflecting Specimens –

Colloidal suspensions, powders and minerals, liquids

Phase Contrast

Dispersion Staining

Amplitude Specimens –

Stained Tissue, naturally colored specimens, hair & fibers, insects and marine algae

Brightfield Illumination
Fluorescent Specimens –

Cells in tissue culture, fluorochrome-stained sections, smears and spreads

Fluorescence Illumination
Birefringent Specimens –

Mineral thin sections, liquid crystals, melted and re-crystallized chemicals, hairs & fibers, bones & feathers

Polarized Illumination


Reflected Light

Specimen TypeImaging Technique
Specular (Reflecting) Surfaces –

Thin film, mirrors, polished metallurgical samples, integrated circuits

Brightfield Illumination

Darkfield Illumination

Diffuse (Non-Reflecting) Surfaces – Thick and thin films, rocks & minerals, hair, fiber, bone and insectsBrightfield Illumination

Darkfield Illumination

Polarized Illumination

Amplitude Surface Features –

Dyed fibers, diffuse metallic specimens, composite materials, polymers

Brightfield Illumination

Darkfield Illumination

Birefringent Specimens – Mineral thin sections, hair & fibers, bones & feathers, single crystals, oriented filmsPolarized Illumination
Fluorescent Specimens –

Mounted cells, fluorochrome-stained sections, smears and spreads

Fluorescence Illumination

5. Analysis and Measurements

Field / SampleImageAttributes, Measurement Features, Analysis
Ceramics, composites, Plastic
  • location, size and shape
  • Grain Size
  • Surface Examination
  • Internal void analysis
  • Crack and Failure Analysis
  • Analyze aerated food products
  • Crystal Size
  • Microstructure
  • Grain Size
  • Porosity
  • Phase
  • Microhardness
  • Oxidation/corrosion
  • Nodularity and Flake
  • Surface
Particles & Porous materials
  • Particle Count, Size, and Distribution
  • Particle Tracking & Velocity
  • Powder/Particle Sizing
  • Skin Pore Size Analysis
  • Skin Wrinkle Measurement
  • Skin Color Analysis
  • Hair Growth
  • Hair Pigmentation
  • Scalp Health
  • Irritation/Spots analysis
Glass, films, coatings
  • Film Thickness
  • Grain Size
  • Geometry
Textile / Fibers
  • Abestos Fiber Analysis
  • Paper porousity, orientation, roughness, count and diameter
new materials
  • Nano Metal Preparation
  • Grain Sizing

These features can be analyzed with Image Pro Plus or Image Pro Premier.

 Analysis Example: Fiber Separation Analysis

The application is designed to separate and measure crossing fibers on images. The fibers on the images can be straight or bent. It can be used to measure distribution of thin inclusions or asbestos fibers.

Researchers have been looking for an easier way to measure the lengths and widths of overlapping fibers. Most researchers end up manually measuring fibers – a process that is not only time consuming, but can introduce inconsistencies. Now, with the Image-Pro Premier Fiber Separation App, it is possible to measure and classify the length and thickness of overlapping fibers with one click.

This App is designed for applications where the entire fiber is visible in the image.

6. Sample Images / Applications

Sample: Duplex steel, damaged rotor blade etching: Beraha III, Camera: ProgRes® C5, Courtesy of: Cloeren Technology/Germany

Sample: PC board, Camera: ProgRes® C14, Courtesy of: ProgRes® Application Lab

Sample: Blower grinding tool, Camera: ProgRes® C14plus, Courtesy of: ProgRes® Application Lab

Sample: stone on stereo microscopes Camera: ProgRes® C7, Courtesy of: ProgRes® Application Lab

Sample: compound from graphite and powder, Camera: ProgRes® C3, Courtesy of: Hoffmann & Co. Elektrokohle AG, Austria

Sample: fluid channel fo a press button Camera: ProgRes® 3012, Courtesy of: HSG-IMIT Microtechnology

Sample: detail of a SQUID (superconducting quantum interference device), Camera: ProgRes® C3, Courtesy of: MPQ of Radio Astronomy, Bonn, Germany

Sample: rolled metal sheet, Camera: ProgRes® C14, Courtesy of: MPI for Iron Research GmbH

Sample: Wafer im DIC Camera: ProgRes® C14plus Courtesy of: Promicron

Sample: Cast Iron (spherulitic graphite iron),  Camera: ProgRes® C5, Courtesy of: Cloearen Technology, Germany

Sample: new formation of cristobalite in glass, Camera: ProgRes® C14plus, Courtesy of: Institute of Ceramic, Glass and Building Materials of the Mining Academy

Sample: TWIP Steel, Camera: ProgRes® C14, Courtesy of: MPI for Iron Research GmbH